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Building competences for inclusive teaching

Language & Country of the resource

English, done by an OECD researcher in France


Building capacity for inclusive teaching Policies and practices to prepare all teachers for diversity and inclusion.

Link to the resource and/or reference to the authors / source of origin

Brussino, Ottavia

Type of resource

(video, lesson plan, etc.) Research/ research report


Learning objective(s)

  • develop inclusive teaching approach;

  • design and implement inclusive teaching strategies;

  • implement an inclusive classroom environment.


Classrooms have become increasingly diverse places where students from various backgrounds share their learning experiences. To promote inclusive school settings for all, building teacher capacity for inclusive teaching represents a key policy area. Education systems need to ensure that teachers are adequately prepared for inclusive teaching and supported throughout their career. Mechanisms to attract and retain a more diverse teaching body as well as to monitor and evaluate teacher preparation and work with respect to diversity and inclusion should also be developed. While teacher policies have increasingly addressed some of these areas, most education systems lack comprehensive capacity-building frameworks for inclusive teaching. This paper maps policies and practices to build teacher capacity for inclusive teaching across OECD countries. It then presents core elements and competences to design and implement inclusive teaching strategies. Finally, the paper reviews some of the evidence available on teacher diversity and interventions for inclusive teaching.


(type and age of the learners and other meaningful characteristics)Teachers of all school grades

Tools and materials needed for implementation

Not provided

Key words

Inclusive pedagogy, Inclusive curriculum, Inclusive assessment

Subject & interdisciplinary / cross-curricular links


Timing (how much time to do it?)

Not provided


Teachers play a fundamental role in promoting inclusive learning environments for all students. Of the factors that are most susceptible to policy change, those related to teachers and teaching have the greatest influence over student learning (OECD, 2005[162]). Therefore, understanding how teachers can design inclusive teaching strategies and cultivate the competences and skills necessary to do so is an important step before exploring effective interventions to enhance inclusive teaching in education (see Section 4). What teachers teach (curriculum), how they teach (pedagogy) and how they monitor student learning (assessment) largely contribute to promoting or hampering diversity and inclusion in the classroom. Similarly, through the ways they critically think and reflect, perceive themselves and others, and uncover their unconscious bias, teachers can develop learning spaces where diversity is valued and inclusion is promoted. Managing an inclusive classroom environment, by modelling an inclusive language, disarming micro-aggressions and promoting inclusive seating or virtual classroom arrangements, is also key for inclusive teaching.

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